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Casa Kike – 为作家打造的避世度假屋

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一位作家委托英国建筑师Gianni Botsford为自己建造一座度假别墅。项目位于哥斯达黎加的巴勒比海岸,周边自然环境丰沃。在令人窒息的美景中,建筑师决定运用当地传统材料和设计元素,建造一...

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一位作家委托英国建筑师Gianni Botsford为自己建造一座度假别墅。项目位于哥斯达黎加的巴勒比海岸,周边自然环境丰沃。在令人窒息的美景中,建筑师决定运用当地传统材料和设计元素,建造一座造型简洁优雅的现代建筑。

“This was a dream commission,” says UK-based architect Gianni Botsford. “Design a retreat for a writer on the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica. Make it contemporary, with clean lines and a modern aesthetic, and yet be sensitive to local tradition and material use.”

▽雨林中的度假屋,retreat in the jungle

项目基地中除了新建的作家度假屋,还有一座已经建好的传统Cahuita单层房屋。客房和厨房以及餐厅被设置在老建筑内,新建筑为作家起居使用。

新建筑建在由木桩架起的1.2米高的木制平台上,主体为由木制步道连接起来的两个木结构体块,一个供白天活动使用,一个为夜晚休息空间。两个体块的单坡屋顶均从靠近步道的一侧起坡,向总体建筑的边缘升起,看上去就像是一对书挡,或是背靠背正在置气的姐妹。

The Artist’s Retreat is built within the grounds of an existing typical one-storey cobbled-together Cahuita house, such as dot the beach-front. Both buildings combine to create the whole property: the older house as guest quarters and the main kitchen, while the new pavilions are the artist’s main residence.

The result is an outstanding twin-volume structure of timber pavilions; one for daytime use, one for night, linked by a wooden walkway. The pavilions are raised 1.2 m above ground level on timber bases perched on wooden stilts. They sit at each end of the similarly raised walkway, their single pitched roofs rising peak at the extremities of the overall structure. They look like bookends or two quarrelling siblings, squatting hunched with their backs to each other.

▽立面图,体块的屋顶向两侧升起,elevation showing that the roofs rise to the edge of the whole architecture

白天工作所用的体块较大,面朝大海,空间高度由步道入口处的3米逐渐升到尽端的4.75米,两端均设有水平玻璃百叶立面。这种百叶立面在当地十分常见,其建造成本低廉,作家可以通过打开这些百叶让大海的气息充满整个空间。

工作体块内部设有一间有17000册藏书的图书馆,一个写作台和一架钢琴。其墙面和天花均用当地的硬木制成,结构木柱以对角线的形式沿墙面升起,与天花上长达十米的木梁相连,形成了钻石切割一般的图案。木制的空间令人感觉温暖而舒适,而其丰富的纹理和自然特性又让空间变得生动有趣起来。

The roof of the larger daytime work and contemplation space rises from 3 m at the walkway entrance to 4.75 m, to create a high end elevation with a large glazed facade facing towards the sea. The glazing comprises multiple rows of louvered panels. These inexpensive opening slats are common in local architecture. They are repeated at the other end of the building, effectively enabling the writer to open the ends of the pavilion and allow the sea breeze to flow freely through the entire space.

Inside, the library of 17,000 books, a writing desk and a grand piano, nestle within walls and a ceiling crafted out of locally-grown hardwoods. Structural columns rise diagonally up the walls and ceiling beams, also hewn from timber and up to 10m long are knitted together in a diamond pattern. The overall effect is warm and homely, like the wood paneled walls of a study, but also exciting in its audacious yet playful nature.

▽可以将室外景观一览无余的玻璃立面,glaze facade through which scenery could be fully enjoyed

▽工作体块入口,使用玻璃百叶加强通风,entrance of the larger volume,using glass louver to enhance ventilation

▽从步道看向工作间,view of the work space from the walkway

▽工作体块室内,interior of the larger volume

▽拥有17000册藏书的图书馆,library with 17000 pieces of book

夜晚休息使用的体块大小只有工作体块的三分之二,其中设有卧室和浴室。休息空间朝向雨林,其两端也采用玻璃百叶立面。

连接两个体块的木制步道被花园景观环绕,形成了一个与室内大小相当的户外生活空间,其中设有一个小水塘,200多种植物使这里显得生机勃勃。

The smaller pavilion houses the bedroom and bathroom. Identical in form but only 2/3rds the size of the larger pavilion, it is orientated so that its highest end façade faces towards the jungle. It too, features glazed louvers to the end elevations.

The wooden walkway between the two interior spaces is surrounded by a landscaped garden that includes a small pool and over 200 plants: it is seen as an outdoor living space, as large as the main studio, which nestles between avocado, mango and cashew trees.

▽小体块的外观和大体块相似,从玻璃立面可以欣赏雨林景观,the form of the small volume is similar to the larger one, from which facade the view of jungle could be enjoyed

哥斯达黎加的富裕区域偏好西方的建筑形式,Botsford却选择在当地传统的建筑和材料中汲取灵感。建筑师通过环境分析软件对基地进行了研究,为建筑选择了最佳的位置和朝向,并且根据业主的要求,没有砍掉基地内的任何一棵树木。

按照环境分析结果,建筑体块被设计成了平行四边形,一方面可以获得最好的景观和通风,另一方面可以降低日照以及相邻的建筑队室内空间的影响。连接两个体块的步道长度也经过了严密计算,其长度和大体块一样,使小体块在脱离了主建筑风影区的同时,依然可以沐浴到海风。

建筑的结构为木制梁和柱以复杂的对角线形式构成,既可以支撑空间,又充满美感。355×50毫米的梁支撑起了整个天花,没有用到一根承重柱,彻底解放了室内空间。所有的木材都来此当地的硬木,建筑外立面采用哥斯达黎加郊区住宅常用的波形钢板,一定程度上节约了建造开销。

He has taken reference from native building styles and materials, rather than the western-influenced architecture favoured by wealthier Costa Ricans. However, using environmental software, the architect has plotted the sun movement, prevailing winds and desired views onto the site to find the optimum position and orientation for the new building. In addition to these parameters, the client also insisted that no trees be felled.

The shape of the two pavilions – parallelograms – reacts to results of the environmental analysis: it assists in promoting the best views and ventilation, while keeping the low sunlight out of the interior spaces and screening them from neighbouring properties. The length of the walkway between the pavilions was also calculated for optimum efficiency. At twice the length of the main building, it ensures that the smaller pavilion is not in the larger one’s ‘wind shadow’; that it benefits from the ocean breeze as much as the main building does.

The structural design of the pavilions is an intricate pattern of diagonal timber beams and columns. Designed for both structural and aesthetic qualities, the 355 x 50 mm ceiling beams negate the use of central columns. All timber is sourced local hardwood – Laurel, Cachá or Surá – as is the timber cladding and decking for the walkway. Externally, the pavilions are clad in low cost corrugated steel sheeting, as used on many rural Costa Rican dwellings.

▽建筑总平面,形态为平行四边形,master plan showing that architecture in parallelogram shape

▽如同钻石分割一般的梁和结构柱,beams and columns knitted together like diamond division

建筑师通过将当地传统建造技术和现代设计手段结合起来,创造了一座轻盈,环保而又美观的生态建筑。这座完美的度假屋如同一首热带牧歌,在优美的环境中回响,为加勒比建筑带来了新生。

“We are bringing new architectural life to the Caribbean by reappraising the architectural heritage of the region and reviving indigenous techniques,” says Botsford. “However, by coupling them with modern design technologies and aesthetics, we have created an eco-architecture that is remarkably light, impacting on its surrounding only minimally both physically and environmentally.” The finished project is a tropical idyll, sitting serenely in its surrounding habitat. Botsford has achieved this by expertly combining local materials and construction methods with his trademark state-of-the-art design techniques to create the perfect writer’s retreat.

▽隐蔽在林中的生态建筑,eco-architecture hidden in the jungle

▽总平面图,site plan

▽平面图,plan

▽剖面图,section


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